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[閱讀] 【英語同源读物】养老金不足--日本民众要为退休生活积累...

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发表于 2019-8-28 11:47 | 顯示全部樓層 |閱讀模式
英語外刊的閱讀有多重要呢?2017-2019年考研英語真题中,所有的閱讀素材均来源于英語外刊。由此可见,外刊对考研英語的重要性不言而喻,早早打好基础,不仅能熟悉掌握考研英語的出题套路,没准儿还能在考场上碰到已读过的素材哦~
     
从今天开始,小编将会在每周定期为大家更新《英語同源读物》,《英語同源读物》是考研幫会员的专属特权,除第一期免费试读外,之后的内容要訂閱會員才能查看完整版喲~
     
?時代背景
     
日本金融廳6月初發布的一份養老報告,差點讓安倍政府下不來台。該報告得出結論說:對活到95歲的日本老年夫婦來說,如果不工作而僅靠公共養老金支付各種開支,將出現2000萬日元(約合128萬元人民幣)的資金缺口。因此,報告敦促人們提早開始積累資産,以幫助支付退休後的各種開支。
     
?原文
     
Japanese people need to put more aside for retirement
第一期:养老金.png
     
Last month Japan's Financial Services Agency (FSA), the financial-industry regulator, lobbed a grenade into a fractious debate on how to support the world's oldest population in retirement. The typical elderly couple, it warned, will need to top up their public pensions by a whopping ?20m ($185,000). The furore that followed put Taro Aso, the finance minister, on the back foot. Japan's pension system "will never collapse", he insisted.
     
His attempt at reassurance was widely mocked. A cartoon in a weekly magazine depicted him helping a Buddhist deity dispatch souls to financial heaven or hell. The implication was that, aged 78 and one of Japan's richest politicians, he personally did not risk ending up in penury.
     
And yet the gloomy forecast should have come as no surprise. Government mandarins have fretted over Japan's pension system for years. The Nikkei Shimbun, a staid business newspaper, warned last year of "disaster" unless it was reformed. The system was built on the expectation that people would live until their 70s or 80s, says Naoyuki Yoshino of the Asian Development Bank Institute, a think-tank. But more than half of Japanese babies today can expect to live to over 100. A quarter of all 60-year-olds will still be alive in 35 years, estimates the government.
     
All 20- to 59-year-olds in work must pay a flat premium of ?16,410 into the national pension fund every month. Those who do so for 40 years get a full pension, currently ?780,100 a year. But the system is imbalanced, with shrinking numbers paying in and growing numbers drawing out. Japan already has more than 35m people aged over 65-28% of the population. The share is projected to reach a third by 2050.
     
Japan's pensions are comparatively stingy, with several countries spending more despite their younger populations. A couple in their 60s on the basic state pension would be ?50,000 short each month compared with average household expenditure, says the FSA. A survey by the welfare ministry published on July 2nd found that half of all retired people had no income beyond their pension.
     
The system is due to get even stingier, with spending as a share of GDP planned to stay almost static as the population ages. The FSA's calculation was supposed to prod people into better retirement planning. But that would mean taking greater risks, says Noriyuki Takayama of the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing, a think-tank-and Japanese people are highly risk-averse. The bulk of Japan's ?1.83 quadrillion in household financial assets is held in post offices or bank accounts that pay zero interest. Most of it is owned by people who remember the puncturing of Japan's asset bubble a generation ago.
     
Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity," says Toshihide Endo, the FSA's director, given that the net assets of elderly households have been almost flat for 20 years. "This implies that wealth formation is failing to keep pace with increased longevity."
     
Mr Yoshino draws an unflattering comparison with America, where major asset classes have increased in value far faster than in Japan. But the fear of losses deters many Japanese investors. Nerves have been jangled by a record loss in the most recent quarter at the Government Pension Investment Fund, the world's largest. Five years ago Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, pressed its managers into shifting about half its assets into equities and slashing its holdings of domestic bonds.
     
Japan is a harbinger of changes to come elsewhere. The World Bank forecasts a shortfall in retirement savings in big countries of about $400trn dollars by 2050. More adventurous investment may be part of the solution. Japan's government also wants to raise the retirement age from 65 to 70. "The very easy answer is that everyone should keep working as long as possible," says Mr Yoshino.
     
?譯文
     
養老金不足--日本民衆要爲退休生活積累更多資産
     
上個月,日本金融廳(金融監管機構)展開了激烈爭論,爭論的焦點是如何支持全球年齡最大的本國退休人口。該機構提醒稱,一對普通老年夫婦需額外積累高達2000萬日元(18.5萬美元)的資産,以彌補公共養老金的不足。消息一出,隨即引發了民衆不滿,使日本財長麻生太郎成爲衆矢之的,但他堅信,日本的養老體系"永遠不會崩塌"。
     
麻生太郎試圖安撫民衆,卻遭到了廣泛的嘲笑。一本周刊雜志上曾有漫畫將他刻畫爲,幫助佛教神靈將靈魂帶到金融天堂或地獄的人。漫畫暗示著,現年78歲的麻生太郎是日本最富有的政客之一,他的晚年當然不會陷入窮困。
     
然而,悲观的预测本不该让人感到意外。多年来,政府官员一直在为日本的养老金制度烦恼。古板的商业报纸《日经新闻》去年警告说,日本的养老金体系将面临"灾难",除非进行改革。智库机构亚洲开发银行研究所的吉野直行(Naoyuki Yoshino)表示,日本养老金体系建立之初的预期是人们活到70岁或80岁。但如今,一半以上的日本新生儿有望活到100岁以上。据政府估计,在所有60岁的人口中,有四分之一的人将活到95岁以上。
     
所有20-59歲的在職人員每月都必須向國家養老基金繳納16,410日元的固定保費,連續堅持繳納40年可以獲得全額養老金,按照當前的金額,退休後每年可領取養老金780,100日元。但由于繳納人數越來越少,而領取人數越來越多,這一體系面臨著失衡的困境。日本已經有超過35萬65歲以上的人口,占總人口的28%,預計到2050年,這一比例將達到三分之一。
     
有的國家雖然人口年輕,但卻提供給人們更多的養老金,相比之下,日本的養老金則顯得寒酸。日本金融廳稱,一對60多歲的夫婦,領取基本的國家養老金後,每月的平均家庭開支仍有50,000日元的空缺。福利部7月2日公布的一項調查發現,半數退休人員除退休金外,沒有其他收入。
     
由于日本不计划提高养老金支出在GDP中的占比,随着人口老龄化的加剧,日本的养老金体系将变得更加寒酸鄙陋。金融厅应当考虑的本应是让人们享受更好的退休生活,但那将意味着承担更大的风险,而日本人是极其不愿冒险的民族,智库机构退休和老龄化政策研究所的高山宪之(Noriyuki Takayama)如是说道。日本1830万亿日元的家庭金融资产中,有很大一部分放在零利息的邮局或银行账户中。有的人仍然对三十年前的日本资产泡沫危机记忆犹新,而他们正是绝大多数家庭金融资产的所有者。
     
鉴于老年家庭的净资产近20年来几乎没有增长,让他们实现多元化既是挑战,也是"商机",日本金融厅主任益川敏英·远藤(Toshihide Endo)说道,"这意味着财富增长未能跟上寿命增长的步伐。"
     
吉野直行毫不客氣地把美國拿來跟日本對比,前者主要資産類別的增值速度遠遠快于後者。但由于最近一個季度,全球最大的日本政府養老投資基金出現創紀錄的虧損,人們的神經變得緊張起來,投資者也開始忌憚遭受損失。五年前,日本首相安倍晉三向基金會經理人施壓,要求其將約一半資産轉移至股市,並削減手中持有的國內債券。
     
日本是其它國家發生變革的先兆。世界銀行預測,到2050年,大國的退休儲蓄將有約400萬億美元的短缺,進行更多的風險投資可能會是一種應對方案。日本政府還希望將退休年齡從65歲提高到70歲。吉野直行說:"答案很簡單,每個人都要盡可能地延長工作時間。"
     
?重點詞彙
     
【1】pension ['p?n??n]:n. 养老金;退休金;抚恤金;v.发给…养老金(退休金)
常用搭配:pension sb off准许某人退休,强迫某人退休(并发给养老金)
例句:He was pensioned off and his job given to a younger man.
他被迫退休,工作交給了一個年輕一些的人。
     
【2】fractious ['fr?k??s]:adj.脾氣不好的;易怒的;表示不滿的;搗亂的
例句:The children were predictably fractious.
這些孩子果然不好管教。
注意:不要混淆fractious和factious ['fr?k??s]:adj.内讧的;闹派别的
例如:this factious dispute has split the party still further
這場派系紛爭進一步加劇了該政黨的分裂)。
     
【3】reassurance[?ri?????r?ns]:n.(能消除疑虑等的)肯定; 能消除疑虑的说话(或行动); 保证
例句:She needed reassurance that she belonged somewhere
她需要一種歸屬感讓她安心。
     
【4】mock [mɑk]:vt. 愚弄,嘲弄;adj. 仿制的,模拟的,虚假的,不诚实的;
n. 英国模拟考试(mocks)
常用搭配:to mock up sth | to mock sth up制作…的实体模型
例句:Landscapes are mocked up in a general kind of way.
用普通方式制作了景觀模型。
     
【5】whoping['w?p??]:adj. 巨大的;天大的;whop(抽、打)的现在分词
例句:The Russian leader won a whopping 89.9 percent yes vote.
這位俄羅斯領導人贏得了89.9%的高票支持。
     
【6】furore ['fj?r?r]:n. 狂怒,喧闹
例句:He caused a furore by describing people with Down's syndrome as `mongol'.
他用"蒙古病患者"來稱呼唐氏綜合征患者,引起了衆怒。
     
【7】dispatch [d?'sp?t?]:vt. 派遣,调度;(迅速地)发出;迅速处理;处决(罪犯等)
n. (使者等的)派遣;急件;迅速办理,快速处理;(记者发回的)新闻报道
常用搭配: to dispatch sb/sth to sth把某人派去某地/把某物发到某地
例句:My sister was dispatched to Scotland.
我姐姐被派往蘇格蘭。
     
【8】penury ['p?nj?ri]:n. 贫困;贫穷
例句:They faced penury unless they could secure employment very soon.
除非能很快找到工作,否則他們就會面臨窮困潦倒的境地。
     
【9】gloomy ['ɡlumi]:adj. 黑暗的;沮丧的;阴郁的
例句:Miller is gloomy about the fate of the serious playwright in America.
米勒對這位嚴肅劇作家在美國的命運持悲觀態度。
     
【10】fret [fr?t]:v.(使)煩惱;(使)焦急;(使)磨損;侵蝕;n.煩躁;磨損;焦急
常用搭配:to fret about sb/sth | to fret over sb/sth 为…担忧
例句:Vera is fretting about her sick children.
薇拉正在擔憂著她生病的孩子們。
     
【11】stingy ['st?nd?i]:adj.吝啬的;小氣的
例句:He is not stingy at all; on the contrary, no one could be more generous.
他一點兒也不吝啬,相反,沒有比他更大方的了。
     
【12】slash [sl??]:vt. 挥砍;鞭打;严厉批评;大幅削减;vi. 严厉地批评;猛砍
n. 猛砍;斜线;刀痕,伤痕;沼泽低地
常用搭配:to slash at sb/sth劈;砍;抽打
例句:He slashed at her, aiming carefully.
他仔細地瞄准她劈了過去。
     
【13】unflattering [?n'fl?t?r??]:不奉承的;不討好的,使人顯得難看的,直言不諱的
例句:He depicted the town's respectable families in an unflattering light.
他在描述鎮上的體面家庭時全無恭維之意。
     
【14】premium ['prim??m]:保險費;額外費用,附加費,加價;(工資等之外的)補貼,津貼,獎金;獎金,獎品
习语:(1)to be at a premium非常珍贵;奇缺
例句:If space is at a premium, choose adaptable furniture.
如果空間狹小,就選擇可改裝的家具。
(2)to place a high premium on sth | to put a high premium on sth高度重视某物
例句:They put a high premium on prevention and primary care.
他們十分重視預防和基礎保健。
     
【15】harbinger ['hɑrb?nd??]:n.先驅;預兆
例句:The November air stung my cheeks, a harbinger of winter.
11月的空氣刺痛了我的臉頰,預示著冬天即將到來。
     
?長難句分析
     
【1】 Last month Japan's Financial Services Agency (FSA), the financial-industry regulator, lobbed a grenade into a fractious debate on how to support the world's oldest population in retirement.
     
?分析:本句的主语是Japan's Financial Services Agency (FSA),主干是Japan's Financial Services Agency...lobbed a grenade into a fractious debate; the financial-industry regulator作FSA的同位语;debate on... 是固定搭配,表示就……展开争论。
     
參考譯文:上個月,日本金融廳(金融監管機構)展開了激烈爭論,爭論的焦點是如何支持全球年齡最大的本國退休人口。
     
【2】 The FSA's calculation was supposed to prod people into better retirement planning. But that would mean taking greater risks, says Noriyuki Takayama of the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing, a think-tank-and Japanese people are highly risk-averse.
     
?分析:本句选择了两句话,第一句是作为背景信息,不做结构分析。第二句的主干是But that would mean taking greater risks and Japanese people are highly risk-averse;says Noriyuki Takayama of the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing作为一个插入语,表明说话人的身份,这是外刊中经常采用的一种表述方法;a think-tank是the Research Institute for Policies on Pension and Ageing的同位语,起到解释说明的作用。
     
遇到这样的句子可以调整语序,防止漏信息或造成理解混乱,方法是把插入结构放在句尾或句首,如本句可处理为:But that would mean taking greater risks and Japanese people are highly risk-averse, says...
     
参考译文:但那将意味着承担更大的风险,而日本人是及其不愿冒险的民族,智库机构退休和老龄化政策研究所的高山宪之(Noriyuki Takayama)如是说道。
     
【3】Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity," says Toshihide Endo, the FSA's director, given that the net assets of elderly households have been almost flat for 20 years.
     
?分析:本句的主语是Getting them to diversify,主干是Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity,"。类似于第二句,同样是要把插入成分says引导的句子调整至句末,将given引导的条件状语从句前移,而且翻译时中文习惯于先说条件和原因,再说结果。因此本句的结构可以调整为Getting them to diversify is both a challenge and a "business opportunity," given that the net assets of elderly households have been almost flat for 20 years, says Toshihide Endo, the FSA's director.
     
积累given(介词)、considering(介词)、provided(连词)引导条件状语的句式表达。如:He'll play in the next match provided he's fit. 如果他身体状况良好,那他将出战下场比赛。
     
参考译文:鉴于老年家庭的净资产近20年来几乎没有增长,让他们实现多元化既是挑战,也是"商机",日本金融厅主任Toshihide Endo说道。
     
会员中心体验更佳哦,想看《英語同源读物》的更多内容,开通会员享有专属权益【開通戳這裏】,除《英語同源读物》外,还可《时政?百解》等其他五项专属特权!
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 樓主| 发表于 2019-8-28 15:08 來自手機 | 顯示全部樓層
考研幫会员享有:英語同源读物、时政-百解、政治知识框架图、英語佛脚词、个性装扮和1000K幣六项专属特权!

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每日一更嗎?

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英語好难啊

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完了…沒法退休了…

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怎么复习英語有效?

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好棒好棒!
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 樓主| 发表于 2019-8-30 11:55 | 顯示全部樓層

這是會員的包年期刊喲~
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